Permaculture combines a series of techniques and strategies in the design of a system. Technique is how to do something. Strategy is how and when to do something. Design is about making a pattern with elements / elements, working with land, in order to create a system.
Making a long-term design is very important because:
- Assist planning for the future.
- Helps you to see which priorities need to be done in order to achieve agricultural or project success.
- Enables you to see how to integrate parts of a system together to save resources and labor, and increase production.
- You can plan how to use rubbish from one section to become a resource in another section.
- Reduce the amount of work needed in the long run and help get the maximum benefit from your work.
- Can accelerate the growth of agriculture or projects, because the right techniques will be utilized at the right time.
- You can plan preparations for extreme weather, such as storms, drought or floods. This is very important! There are many techniques in this guide that can help you overcome these extreme problems.
A plan gives you a framework. Like a home, a framework is needed before you build the other equipment, and a good framework will create a strong home that can last for the long term.
The plan will give many orders, but remain flexible. This can change according to changing circumstances. If there are successes or mistakes found, adjust your plan.
Approach to Design
"Where is everything?"
"What is the shape of the land?"
Drawing or making a land map is a very good way to see where everything is in one picture. The map will look like you look up and down, to the ground, like an eagle looking down from space.
Maps can also be made with sand or soil, using models that represent the main part of the land. This method is often easier and more enjoyable. You can make mountain slopes and rivers, even experiment with running water using real water.
A profile map or sliced map is another way to look at land, this is very useful for looking at sloping land or certain parts of land. It's like cutting a slice of cake then looking at the slices from the side. Land surface, including buildings and trees, is the upper part of the cake, with tree roots growing into the cake.
All the different parts of the map must be drawn on a 'scale'. This means that the proportion of the size of the parts is the same as the actual situation.
The trick is:
- Measure each part with the same step size.
- Count the number of steps for each measurement.
- Comparing distances on various parts. Walls with a size of 20 steps must be drawn twice the length of which is 10 steps. A garden bed measuring 25 steps in length must be drawn five times the length of the five steps.
- Draw the shape and write the size next to the picture.
The pictures do not need to be perfect, but using this method will help draw a more accurate map. A more accurate map will help make a better design.
Show where the flat, slightly sloping or very steep slope. Different techniques and strategies will be used for each section so it is important to show the differences. River banks, caves and unusual landforms must be noted.
Maps need to include:
• Existing buildings.
• Buildings to be made.
• Existing plants.
• Future plans for the garden.
• Existing livestock and cages.
• Livestock and animal pens that will be made.
• Rivers, natural springs, ponds and streams.
• Roads and alleys.
• Flat land, slightly sloped land and very sloped land.
• Pipes, for water and electricity.
• Borders and fences.
• Land or land that is sacred.
• Land declared extreme and problematic, such as erosion, flood plains, rocky soil.
• And most importantly, a 'key map'.
Each section displayed on the map is given a letter or symbol. The 'map lock' is the part of the map in which all letters or symbols are interpreted. The 'map lock' acts like a key in real life; he opened the door to understand the information in the map.
To make the map easy to read, use a different color for each part. For example, use yellow for water, blue for trees, green for buildings, pink for roads, and others.
Different colors can also be useful for separating between existing and planned parts, for example using black for existing parts and red for planned.