As it is customary in some of my publications I will make an analysis of one of the most representative aboriginal pieces of our great America, specifically I will speak of the stone of the sun popularly called Aztec calendar.
Before entering in which is the meaning that this great sculpture had for the Aztec culture I must make emphasis in the ignorance that had the Spanish invaders on this type of representation of the time of the Aztecs, great part of the works of arts linked primarily with the beliefs were destroyed by the Spanish invaders. More than 500 years ago there are 3 great civilizations with a totally different cosmogony to the western one, with political systems, knowledge in agriculture, engineering, medicine, art and without end of crafts that made great discoveries that until today continue impacting the world, only by quoting the Incas from the hand of the great Inca Garcilaso de la Vega the Incas were able to learn to cultivate at least 90% of the vegetables that are consumed today in great part of the world until today.
The stone of the sun was sculpted by the Mexicas traditional name that historians give to the Aztecs, it is not known exactly who was the author of the work, according to carbon studies 14 the approximate date of its creation was in 1200 after Christ. Even today it is still the object of study because it is not deciphered which was the function or what it meant exactly for the Aztec cosmogony.
The beautiful stone called olivine basalt was chosen to sculpt the great stone that weighs 24 tons and measures 3.60 meters in diameter, 122 centimeters, was found by the Spanish invaders and ordered to be cut from the site where it was found and then buried, it was not until 1790 when urban reforms imposed by the Spanish empire made them rediscover the site where the monolith was buried, years later when the United States invaded part of the Mexican soil used the same stone to practice target shooting.
It is totally understandable the way in which all the empires in the world act with respect to the culture, the fundamental idea of any invader in other lands is to impose its culture and for it the fundamental objectives is to destroy the culture, for it not only kill people or persecute the beliefs, it is also necessary to erase all trace of history or culture so that the new model culture is imposed. I will not expand on this point, but it is logical that the form and achievements are questionable especially when we talk about killing living beings and with them kill and try to erase their culture.
I would like to emphasise the importance that this creation continues to have, which represents an accumulation of knowledge and cultural wealth that I have lost for hundreds of thousands of years without the interaction of other peoples, such as the case of the Spanish empire, which dedicated itself to destroying the historical memory of all America and plundering gold and other precious metals coveted by the European value system and venerated and taken into account in a very different way by civilisations such as the Incas, Mayas or Aztecs.
One of the attractions of this grandiose monolith is the carving of a solar god called Tonatiuh from which two large claws come out that hold human hearts, which in turn is the representation of the bird eagle whose veneration is present in many rituals, other of the carvings present in the large carved rock of 24 tons are the representation of four large eras that surround the main deity to the sun god, which indicates the 4 suns that were before the current one, the right picture is the jaguar, this era is at least about 7 centuries , tells the legend of the suns that from the earth came great mounstros that finished with the population of the time, then to its left is found the representation of the deity dedicated to the wind represented by the natural cycle of the storms with a duration of a little more than 3 centuries, according to the legend tells that the strong winds made people resemble primates, then continues with the rain represented by the natural water cycle, with a duration similar to the first era of 676 years almost 7 centuries this was the closest to the current era, the legend says that the water flooded everything turning people into fish.
Mathematics is fundamental to understand this great calendar where each era has different numbers of years, the first era is 676 years, the second of 364 and the last of 312 years which in turn are multiples of 52, being 52 years the duration of 1 Aztec century, in total the calendar counts 39 centuries resulting in 2028 years.
In another delivery I will go deeper into how was the exact mathematical aspect with which they calculated the eras, and the divisions until arriving at a totally different type of calendar