#科普#量子物理(17)

in steempress •  2 months ago  (edited)

夸克的概念由默里·盖尔曼提出,把所有的粒子分类,包括一些还有待发现的粒子,但这个粒子物理学模型解释了自然界中的物质和所有的力(电磁力、强力、弱力),唯独引力套用不了这个模型(到现在还没有一个理论是可以涵盖所有的力的)。物质由夸克和轻子组成,玻色子是承载力的粒子。 

现在发现的夸克有六种,分别为上夸克、下夸克、粲夸克、奇夸克、顶夸克、底夸克;

轻子也有六种,分别为电子、电子中微子、渺子、渺子中微子、陶子、陶子中微子;

玻色子有五种,分别是光子、胶子、W玻色子、Z玻色子、希格斯玻色子。 


我们坐在椅子上,而不是座穿椅子,是**电磁力**的作用,它使原子和分子结合起来。而电磁力还是光、X射线、微波、无线电波等等可以转播出去的基础。**光子**是电磁力中派上用处的粒子。

光子很随便的能被任何带电粒子发射或者吸收。把光子想象成一个皮球,在我用全力扔给你的同时,我会不受控制的向后仰,你也会受到冲撞向后仰。在量子世界中,我和你就是两个同级带电粒子,皮球就是那个光子;而把光子想象成一个弹簧,你我各拉一端,那么我们就是不同级的带电粒子。光子可以是皮球也可以是弹簧,在粒子间可能起着斥力,也可能起着吸气力。

 **强相互作用力**让质子和中子乖乖的在原子核内转悠,原子成为一个个原子。**胶子**是强相互作用力中派上用场。“胶”源于glue,它将夸克粘在一起,形成质子和中子。 

粒子发生裂变或者发生衰变,这是**弱相互作用力**作祟。比如质子衰变成中子了,渺子衰变成电子了。  


这个粒子物理学模型没有说明粒子为什么有些(比如夸克)有质量,有些(比如光子)没有质量。物理学家提出了一个解释,有一个电磁场——希格斯场——在影响粒子,它赋予一些粒子质量。

这个希格斯场像是空气一样,无法被检测到。空气无所不在,但打开窗户,风吹进来,才能感觉到空气的存在。

同样我们的大型强子对撞机的粒子加速器能检测到的是希格斯玻色子。当两掌快速相击,就会引起空气振动。这种振动的表现形式就是波,声波入耳,最后才听到击掌的声音。在量子世界中,波也是粒子。

对撞机实验和这类似,质子向相反的方向加速到光速后对撞,检测到希格斯玻色子,反过来证明了希格斯场的存在。

寻找希格斯玻色子的实验是很不容易的,好比把两个西瓜对撞,让西瓜子也碰巧相对碰撞,这真的靠运气了。再加上希格斯玻色子非常不稳定,短时间内会分裂成其他粒子。



Posted from my blog with SteemPress : http://cocozl.cn/2020/01/03/%e7%a7%91%e6%99%ae%e9%87%8f%e5%ad%90%e7%89%a9%e7%90%86%ef%bc%8817%ef%bc%89/
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